Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in immunocompromised patients are associated with high mortality and treatment costs. Identifying appropriate, cost-effective treatment strategies is crucial to reduce the burden of IFIs. This economic assessment compared strategies for treating immunocompromised patients in Algeria and Egypt.
We developed a decision analytic model incorporating clinical and cost inputs associated with a diagnostic-driven (DD) and standard empirical (SE) strategy. Costs and clinical outcomes were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) per death avoided.
In both countries, 73.8 (DD) and 125.3 (SE) hypothetical patients per 1,000 received antifungal therapy; 73.8 (DD) and 32.7 (SE) had diagnosed IFIs. Survival at 180 days was similar between DD and SE strategies in Algeria (92.0% vs 91.6%) and Egypt (90.2% vs 90.0%). Total costs per patient were lower with the DD than SE strategy (Algeria: $839 vs $1,591; Egypt: $4,077 vs $4,717). ICERs indicated that the DD compared with SE strategy was associated with better clinical outcomes at a lower overall cost in both countries.
Diagnostic-driven compared to empirical therapy may be cost-saving in Algeria and Egypt for the management of immunocompromised patients with persistent neutropenic fever, with no increase in mortality.